57. Respondent alleges that the prohibited substance in her sample was more
probably than not the result of eating meat she did not know and had no reason to know was
contaminated with trenbolone. While Respondent proffered no direct evidence of such
contamination of any meat she actually consumed or contamination of meat generally
available for sale in the United States, she asserts that (a) trenbolone is approved by the U.S.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in beef cattle; (b) based on limited data, some
estimates indicate that 60% - 90% of all beef cattle in the United States may be treated with
trenbolone; (c) although the FDA once had regulatory tolerances in place, it later repealed
them and established a daily limit on the amount of trenbolone that humans could consume
without adverse health impacts;
and (d) USADA has advised athletes of potential risks in
consuming beef from foreign countries such as Mexico and China due to the use of clenbuterol
(also a prohibited substance) in beef cattle.
58. Respondent asserts that intentional